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LiDAR is a key technology involved in terrain mapping

2020-03-01 22:19
LiDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) technology is a rapid development of active Remote sensing technology in recent 20 years. Different from the working mechanism of passive optical Remote sensing, LiDAR can effectively detect the spatial structure and topography of forest vegetation, and has made a successful application in quantitative measurement and inversion of forest parameters. In particular, it has the ability to detect the vertical structure of forest, which has advantages that are hard to be compared with traditional optical Remote sensing data.
At the same time, laser technology is also used in many other fields. The laser ranging principle of lidar can use red light and ultraviolet light to detect terrain when measuring terrain. With the continuous progress and update of lidar technology, it has been widely used in the field of surveying and mapping and has made great contributions to the surveying and mapping work.

1. Characteristics of lidar terrain surveying and Remote sensing technology

In general, the characteristics of lidar terrain mapping and Remote sensing technology mainly include the following aspects:

(1) Comprehensive feature

In the field of surveying and mapping, lidar Remote sensing technology has a very strong integration, can obtain a large number of data. From a macro perspective, the data obtained by Remote sensing reflects the distribution of all things on the earth, which can truly reflect the characteristics of mountains, earth and hydrological surfaces. Compared with aerial image acquisition, lidar Remote sensing has lower requirements on weather conditions and higher efficiency.

(2) Extensive characteristics

Another characteristic of lidar technology is its wide application. It can get some very valuable data from the air or other fields in a very short time. This data can be used to expand visual space. This also makes it easier for us to keep track of changes in phenomena and provides important information for us to study some laws, which is why no other technology can replace it at present.

(3) Dynamic characteristic

Lidar Remote sensing allows us to see a place over and over again, which can help us see a lot of things that conventional means cannot see on earth. In addition, another application advantage of lidar Remote sensing technology is Remote sensing, which can detect the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the presence of military targets.

The key techniques involved in lidar application terrain mapping

1. Key technology of composite scan control

In lidar Remote sensing technology, radar is used for laser imaging, in which a scanner can deflect the laser to the corresponding area, so as to achieve laser imaging. It is also important that the reflected echoes are well integrated into the system. If the scan is not linear, the image will be distorted. To avoid this, two things must be done: one is to pay attention to whether the scanning aspect is linear control; Second, the scan path must be aligned in time.

2. Key technology of laser emission

Radar has strict requirements on the size and power of its loaded platform. Of course, there are also requirements for operating environments outside the platform. If it had been airborne, the vibrations would have been huge. High spatial resolution radars are needed if high altitude operations are to be required and topographic maps are to be drawn.
It needs to have the following characteristics: first, it can effectively complete the task; Second, high frequency; The third is relatively small and still aseismatic take diode laser as an example, it has the advantage of both solid laser and semiconductor laser: small volume, light weight, can be high frequency output, and mature technology.
3. Key technology of high speed signal processing

The main application of lidar Remote sensing technology in terrain mapping is to form relatively accurate and clear images. It is not easy to achieve this goal and requires multiple modifications. The distance between each point of lidar measurement is oblique, and the measured data must be converted into elevation through the process of converting from one-dimensional to three-dimensional, and finally the mapping results meeting the requirements can be obtained through the transformation of coordinates, correction of irregular images and correction of errors.

The application of lidar technology in surveying and mapping

1. Basic surveying and mapping

Lidar technology has the advantage of 3d information acquisition, and the obtained data has the characteristics of high density and good quality, which can accurately reflect the 3d information of topography and landform, and is conducive to improving the accuracy of basic surveying and mapping data. Digital photogrammetry data collection is a complicated process, so the technical design of measurement work is very strict, technical personnel should have a higher level of professional knowledge and skills. Therefore, this technology can optimize the use and allocation of measurement means and technical resources and improve the efficiency of data collection.

2. Large-scale engineering mapping

Lidar data collection plays an important role in engineering measurement, especially in modern construction engineering. Collect relevant data information, can construct the corresponding model. After obtaining the three-dimensional coordinates of the space quickly, lidar technology can use information technology to record the changes in real time, which can obtain the measurement data information accurately. This technology can be used to construct large spatial entities on the basis of architecture, or to construct three-dimensional data models of space, and reproduce the actual form of objective things.

3. Constructing digital mine

With the development of modern society, the construction of digital mine requires that the environment must be friendly and economical, so as to ensure the benign development of mine. In recent years, the development of China's mining industry is in the bottleneck period, with the massive consumption of resources, causing serious damage to the ecological environment. To solve this problem, we must pay more attention to the development of digital mine. Digital mines can use their technical characteristics to monitor the ecological environment of subsidence areas in real time, provide basic data for economic evaluation, investigate the damage degree of subsidence buildings, and probe natural disaster and geological information.

4. Sensor application

Lidar technology can be used to improve the measurement of topography and topography. It can be used to check the growth of plants and crops. It can also be used to remove vegetation and observe surface areas, meeting the needs of different industries.

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